Review:Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity综述:维持水生生物多样性

2019-09-21

水生生物多样性受到威胁。世界野生动物基金会在2015年发布的一份报告[1显示,从1970年到2012年,海洋生物数量下降了近50%。一些在当地和商业上捕鱼的物种的数量也下降了。50%,甚至更多。一个简单的推论是如果我们住面海洋生物发生,它是否会在未来40年内灭绝。

Aquatic biodiversity is, under threat. A report[ 1]


published by the World Wildlife Fund in 2015, showsa almost 50% decreasein marine life populations from 1970 to 2012. The populations of some specieswhich are locally and commercially fishedhave alsofallen by 50%, or. even more. A simple inference iswhether Marine life will be extinct in the next 40years, if we let it happen.Major threats主要威胁


So. what is the major threats? Human activities.那么主要的威胁是什么呢?人类活动。


生态系统中特别国有的模式和规则。破坏这种模式的后果是一种生态灾难,就像拖网破坏海底的栖息地。或者大坝破坏淡水栖息地一样。破坏稻息地,也杀死赖以生存的物种。


Patterns and rules that are particularly inherent inthe ecosystem. The consequence of breaking thispattern is. an ecological disaster, just like trawlingdamage the habitats on sea bottom, or the damsbreakdown the freshwater habitats. Destroy thehabitats, also kill the species who lives on.


海洋污染往往会对海洋生境造成严重破坏。是什么是致了海洋汽染?石油酒高化肥和塑科垃圾等有毒污染物很容易使海洋生境和生态系统失衡或遭到破坏。


Marine pollution can often cause serious damage toMarine habitats. And what cause the marine pollution? The toxic pollutants like oil spill, fertilizersand plastic garbage easily unbalanced the marinehabitats and ecosystem or. destroy them.


人类的另一个活动是过度捕捞。这是直接杀死海洋生物。根据世界野生动物基金会的报告。金枪鱼和绩鱼的数量已经减少了近西分之三,太平洋的蓝鲭金枪鱼濒临灭绝。这主要是由于全球过度捕捞的问题,作者说。与海龟和其他濒危水生生物一样的困境。Another activity of human is overfishing, which is killing marine. life directly. According to the report fromthe World Wildlife Fund, the tuna and mackerelpopulations have seen a nearly three quarters decline and Bluefin tuna in the Pacific are on the brinkof extinction. This is largely due to the global problemof overfishing, the authors said. The same plight asthe sea turtles and other endangered aquaticcreatures.


Harmful invasive species is a threat too. Thousands of invaders, unrestrained encroachment and squeezing the living resources of the protozoa. But how them get the chance to slip in? Most of invasive species were hitching a ride on human activities.


So YES, we are guilty.


How should we do now?


Limit and reduce human destructive activities on theoceans and rivers. The National wild and Scenic


Rivers Act is protect rivers and river segments withoutstanding scenic, recreational, geological, wildlife,historical, or cultural values. The U.S. federal policy isa zero net loss goal; destruction of some wetlands isallowed, if the same type of wetland is. created backelsewhere. National and international laws and treaties include CITES, Global Treaty on MigratorySpecies(1979), the US Marine Mammal Protection Act,the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. WhaleConservation and Protection Act, and the International Convention on Biological Diversity. Thediversity of Marine life is maintained by laws, economic incentives and establish the protected areas in ocean and land. We should establish morelarge-scale cross-regional aquatic environmentmonitoring systems, and to combine the governments of various countries and regions to strictly regulate all activities related to Marine life inand out of the protected areas. Reduce statesubsidies for fishing industries and develop industries that have lttle impact on the Marineenvironment, such. as Marine tourism.


But we are not going to completely stop all activitieson the oceans and rivers. The aquatic ecosystem isthe treasure of the world. We shiould develop theaquatic economy in an appropriate and orderly wayunder the guidance of science. This should entail anecosystem strategyto protecting biodiversity.Priorities should be locatingaquatic biodiversity identifying and preserving key areas, creating fully.


protected marine. reserves, protecting and recoveringlakes and rivers, initiating ecological restorationprojects worldwide, and finding ways to raise theincomes of people who live near the reserves,try toachieve a harmonious balance between Marinesustaining and human development.


There is still hope that the harmful effects of humanactivities. on biodiversity can be reversed in future.


海洋污染往往会对海洋生境造成严重破坏。是什么导致了海洋污染?石油酒高化肥和塑科垃圾等有毒污染物很容易使海洋生境和生态系统失衡或遭到破坏。